Ramadan also called Fasting (Arabic: رمضان, Ramadhan) is, according to the Muslim calendar, the ninth month of the year and lasts 30 days. The word in Arabic means "hot months", which suggests that once (when the months were related to the solar cycle), it was a summer month.
Ramadan, for the strict observance of the fasting day and hampers the work and the festive character of his nights, is an exceptional period of the year for Muslims in all Muslim majority countries: its sacredness is based on tradition already fixed in the Koran of Mohammed, that this month Mohammed had received a revelation from the Archangel Gabriel.
Originally, the month of Ramadan was, as its name (the 'hot') shows, a summer month, but then Mohammed adopted a purely lunar calendar of twelve months, therefore, changes its position each year.
Fasting (sawm) during that month is the third of the Five Pillars of Islam and those who would deny the obligatory Kafir, that is guilty of impiety and maximum nullifying the condition of Muslim. In some Muslim-majority countries non-compliance with fasting is a criminal offense.
During the month of Ramadan in fact practicing Muslims must abstain - from sunrise to sunset - from drinking, eating, smoking and engage in sexual activities. Who is unable to fast (because sick or traveling) can also be raised by the precept, but as soon as possible, must recover the fasting month later.
Since the aim of the devotee is to purify all that material exists in the world corrupt and corruptible, and since each ingestion is considered pleasant corruption of body and soul, is also prohibited smoking and, according to some, perfume because it intervened in both actions of foreign substances and both actions are illegal, which would distract from the enjoyment penitential aspects targeted by the institution. The ingestion of food, liquid or gaseous substances does not create a fast break.
But it is worth noting that the use of perfume during fasting is accepted by some of Muslim scholars that expressly prohibits only the inhalation of incense. The reason for this relative tolerance is perhaps the fact that the prophet Mohammed was very fond of perfumes and made abundant use for the trouble he had for odors, as to prohibit anyone who ate garlic or onion to participate in collective prayer noon on Friday in the mosque. On the occasion of Ramadan is also required to avoid surrender to anger.
For some scholars of Shiism, such as al-Najm al-Din al-Muhaqqiq Hill, however, if the smoke and the smell does not constitute breach of the duty in case of intercourse, the first breach of abstention in during fasting would flogging and in case of recidivism, even the death penalty. It is worth noted, however, that the opinion of a product, albeit authoritative as Al-Hilla, it remains an opinion and that the punishment is far from being a reality.
Pregnant women, nursing mothers, children and chronically ill are exempted from fasting and should instead, according to their capabilities, do charity such as feeding the needy regardless of their religion, ethnic group or their beliefs. Women during their cycle or people should not travel fast, but they can postpone.
When the sun sets, fasting is broken. Tradition dictates that we should eat a date because that was the Prophet. Alternatively you can drink a glass of water.
Since the Islamic calendar consists of 354 or 355 days (10 or 11 days less in the calendar), the month of Ramadan every year falls at a different time in the calendar year, and then gradually falls into a different season.
The spiritual significance of fasting has been analyzed by many theologians. It attributes such as fasting the dowry to the man to teach self-discipline, belonging to a community, patience and love for God
Several occurrences of the month Muslims celebrate or commemorate. On the 6th it was born the grandson of Muhammad, al-Husayn ibn 'Ali. The 10 days would be dead first wife of the Prophet, Khadija bint Khuwaylid. The 17 days would be won the battle of Badr. The 19 days would have been conquered by the Muslim city of Mecca. The 21 would die 'Ali ibn Abi Talib and his descendants, the Shi'ite imam' Ali al-Rida.
At the end of Ramadan, is celebrated the Id al-Fitr (Feast of the interruption [of fasting] "), also called the" little party "(Id al-Saghir).
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