Thistle (Ji) is the thistle family Asteraceae (Cirsium) generic and similar plants. Thistle seed and not just the standard Japanese name. Scotland's national flower.
Leaves many of them have a deep cut. A lot of thorns and leaves and involucre, often touching and very painful. The flower head is made they only tubular flowers, petal-shaped tongue Narabanai flowers such as chrysanthemums around much. Rod projecting from the flower stamen and pistil, and like Hariyama views as well. The purple flowers have a purple and red. The seeds have a long crest.
When a young radical leaf has become increasingly tall, with foliage that is also a kind of radical leaf end. Grasslands and dry land, and leaving the coast, in the forest does not appear much.刺草 alias. The origin of the name, Athem under, and is surprised at some sting from the spines and flowers and 折Rou.
There are over 250 world-widely distributed in the Northern Hemisphere. Too many local variations, but in Japan there are more than 100 may still find new species. There is also more hybrids between species, sometimes difficult to categorize.
The following species is relatively wide distribution.
* Bruno thistle C. japonicum DC.: Spring thistle may think about it. ~ Honshu and Kyushu. The thistle and Germany say this kind of horticultural varieties, and Germany is really irrelevant.
* Fuji thistle C. purpratum (Maxim) Matsum.: The diameter of the flower can reach up to 8cm (pictures of flowers: flavone). ~ Kanto Mountains, central Japan.
* Noharaazami C. tanakae: blooms in the fall. Mountains of north central region of Honshu.
* Hama thistle C. martitimum Makino: The coast of thistle, thick and glossy leaves. South central Honshu to Kyushu in the Pacific.
* Moriazami C. dipsacolepis (Maxim) Matsum.: ~ Honshu and Kyushu meadow. When food is grown.
* Nanbuazami C. nipponicum (Maxim) Makino: in the northern Honshu was normal. Variants include, distributed to the Shikoku region.
* Thistle C. borealinipponense Kitam.: Central region, the Japan Sea side of Tohoku region.
* Thistle pipe C. sieboldii: wetlands.
* Thistle Sawa C. yezoense: along the stream north of the Sea Region.
* Tachiazami C.inundatum Makino: Wetlands of the Sea of Japan from Hokkaido to Honshu.
* Horsetail thistle C. suffltum (Maxim.) Matsum.: The most common in Kyushu and thistle. Shikoku, Kyushu distribution.
* Hawk thistle C. pendulum Fisch. Ex DC.: Hokkaido, northern Honshu distribution. Distributed in East Asia as well.
Often very limited distribution.
* Choukaiazami C. chokaiensis Kitam.: Alpine meadows northeast Mt.
* Ozenumaazami C. homolepis Nakai: fraction of the wetland areas in and around Oze.
* Aizuhimeazami C. aidzuense Nakai ex Kitam.: Area fraction of the Japan Sea side of Honshu.
* Joushuuoniazami C. okamotoi Kitam.: Gunma Prefecture, the area fraction of the mountain border region of Niigata Prefecture.
The following species are the southern islands.
* Sima thistle C. breviaule A. Gray: Amami, Okinawa distribution.
* Ogasawaraazami C. boninense Koidz.: Distribution of the Ogasawara Islands.
In addition to the roots over the winter, fluff (pappus) and increase in wind dispersal of fruits arrived. Insect-pollinated flower is pollinated by insects.
Closely related group
Similar or even plant Cirsium, the name "thistle" is or with, some were not plant Cirsium (thistle fillet, golden thistle, thistle Miyako Matsukasaazami and Ruritamaazami). The flowers also similar genus and species Touhiren Higotai. Burdock flowers are very similar. Cynara scolymus (artichoke) is not Cirsium, Cynara is.
Human relationship with food
The cultural representative of the grass hurts anyway. In Scotland, the national flower and has been protected from predators by a splinter of the country.
Tsugaru, Aomori Prefecture and Aomori Prefecture, northeastern part of Nagano Prefecture and the town center and the northeast, along the supermarket thistle shoots in spring, are sold as food, mainly used as a soup ingredient. Shoots and roots are eaten as wild plants and the tempura. "Burdock Mountain" and "Chrysanthemum burdock" Sometimes they say and are sold at tourist attractions and hot springs in the mountains as processed products such as miso "mountain burdock" is often grown in Moriazami the roots.
Note the distinction between plants and poisonous
Species name of science, and pokeweed burdock Asteraceae Yamma is not either, such as thistle and burdock Moriazami family is far Yama interrelated, and that the medicinal, edible and poisonous plant it will not, be confused sensitive to such errors 食Shinai.
Source : http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E3%82%A2%E3%82%B6%E3%83%9F