The Geology (from Greek: γῆ [ɡɛ ː] "earth" and λόγος [lɔɡɔs] "teaching") is the science of structure, the composition and structure of the earth, its physical properties and their evolution, as well as the processes that they shaped and also form today. Notwithstanding the real meaning the word used for geological structure, such as the geology of the Alps.
The term geology in the modern sense is found first in 1778 with Jean-André Deluc (1727-1817). Horace Benedict de Saussure (1740-1799) resulted in geology in 1779 as a fixed term. Previously, the term geology in use.
The material with which geologists are primarily concerned, the building blocks of the solid earth's crust, such as rocks or the water stored in them (Hydrogeology), or oil and gas (petroleum geology). Both the spatial relationships between different rock bodies, and the composition and internal structure of individual rocks, provide information for deciphering the conditions under which they are incurred. The geologist is responsible for the identification and development of various raw materials such as metal ores, industrial minerals and construction materials such as sand, gravel and clay, without which further economic development would not be possible. In addition, he is also responsible for the security of drinking water and energy resources such as oil or gas and coal as well as more recently in charge of the silicon solar industry. Finally, is for the exploration of the subsurface geology, particularly for larger construction projects to subsidence, landslides and ground cracks to prevent long-term.
In the ground or below ground, the geologist, the open-minded (open-access) rocks is divided on the basis of external characteristics in defined units. This mapping unit have to be represented at the scale chosen on a geological map, or in a geological profile. By extrapolation it can predict the way the rocks in the subsurface are stored with great probability.
A closer examination of the rocks (petrography, petrology is), but usually take place in the laboratory.
* With the individual, sometimes microscopic, components of the rocks, the minerals involved, the mineralogy.
* With the fossil content of sedimentary rocks is concerned, the paleontology.
Such detailed studies on a small scale, providing data and figures for the large-scale studies of the general geology.
Geology has many points of contact with other sciences, which are summarized as geosciences. Viewed in the geochemistry chemical processes in the Earth - and uses methods from chemistry, to obtain additional information on geoscience issues. Similarly, the geophysics and geodesy. Even mathematics has a special branch which produced geostatistics, which is particularly used in mining. Since the 1970s there is in the earth sciences in general, a certain trend of more qualitative, descriptive studies to more quantitatively measuring methods. Despite the increased processing power of modern computers come such numerical methods, because of the enormous variability and complexity of geoscientific parameters, remain at their limits.
In the border area to astronomy moves the planets geology, which deals since the beginning of the exploration of our solar system with probes and satellites with the geological processes on the foreign celestial bodies.
Source : http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geologie