Tuesday, August 10, 2010

History of Biology

The word "biology" (Greek βιολογία; of the words βίος (life) and λόγος (word)) was apparently first used in the work of Michael Christoph Hanova - Philosophiae Naturalis sive physicae dogmaticae: geology, biology, phytologia generalis et Dendrology, published in 1766. The term "biology" as we know today, was introduced by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829). History of biology, however, we can find it in the times of ancient human civilizations and the classical philosophers, as a way of understanding life.

Although the concept of biology as a single coherent sector originated in the 19th century, biology has emerged in the times of ancient Greece and Rome, where he engaged in living nature of Aristotle and Claudius Galen. In their research continued in the medieval Arab physicians such as al-Jahiz, Avicenna, Avenzoar and Ibn al-Nafis. During the Renaissance and early modern era of biology as a science and penetrated into Europe. Prominent scientists were at the time of William Harvey and Andreas Vesalius, who conducted experiments and observations as Linnaeus and Buffon who began to explore the diversity of life and fossils as well as development and behavior of organisms.

At the turn of the 18th and 19 century biology has become increasingly determined only natural science experts. Researchers such as Alexander von Humbolt explored cooperation between organisms and their environment. The most important biologist of the 19th century is undoubtedly Charles Darwin on his theory of evolution by natural selection. She first met with resistance from the company because it was inconsistent with Christianity, but later were recognized as true.

In the early 20th century, the rediscovery of Gregor Mendel's work led to a rapid increase in research in genetics by Thomas Morgan and his students around 1930, and a combination of population genetics and natural selection in the "neo-Darwinian synthesis". James D. Watson and Francis Crick discovered the structure of DNA in 1953, for which he received the 1962 Nobel Prize for Medicine. Throughout the twentieth century, conducted research on the genetic code from its deciphering in 1966.

Source : http://cs.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biologie

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